Answers to Questions by Yair Davidiy (3 September 2017, 12 Elul, 5777)
On which particular traditions and/or texts do the followers of Judaism base their belief in a coming messiah?
The future Messiah will be a descendant of David son of Jesse.
Here are two sources but there are many more.
Isaiah (NASB) 11:
1 Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse,
And a branch from his roots will bear fruit.
2 The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him,
The spirit of wisdom and understanding,
The spirit of counsel and strength,
The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.
3 And He will delight in the fear of the LORD,
And He will not judge by what His eyes see,
Nor make a decision by what His ears hear;
4 But with righteousness He will judge the poor,
And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth;
And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth,
And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked.
5 Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins,
And faithfulness the belt about His waist.
6 And the wolf will dwell with the lamb,
And the leopard will lie down with the young goat,
And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together;
And a little boy will lead them.
7 Also the cow and the bear will graze,
Their young will lie down together,
And the lion will eat straw like the ox.
8 The nursing child will play by the hole of the cobra,
And the weaned child will put his hand on the viper’s den.
9 They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain,
For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD
As the waters cover the sea.
10 Then in that day
The nations will resort to the root of Jesse,
Who will stand as a signal for the peoples;
And His resting place will be glorious.
Ezekiel (NASB) 37:
24 My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them. 25 They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons’ sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever. 26 I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in their midst forever. 27 My dwelling place also will be with them; and I will be their God, and they will be My people. 28 And the nations will know that I am the LORD who sanctifies Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forever.
Wikipedia has a list of points from Scripture that will characterize the Messiah. These are accurate as far as they go, but see what we have written below the quote.
Messiah in Judaism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Many of the scriptural requirements concerning the Messiah, what he will do, and what will be done during his reign are located in the Book of Isaiah, although requirements are mentioned by other prophets as well. Views on whether Hebrew Bible passages are Messianic may vary from and among scholars of ancient Israel looking at their meaning in original context and from and among rabbinical scholars.
- Isaiah 1:26: "And I will restore your judges as at first and your counsellors as in the beginning; afterwards you shall be called City of Righteousness, Faithful City." Some Jews interpret this to mean that the Sanhedrin will be re-established." (Isaiah 1:26)
Once he is King, leaders of other nations will look to him for guidance. (Isaiah 2:4)
The whole world will worship the One God of Israel (Isaiah 2:11-17)
He will be descended from King David (Isaiah 11:1) via Solomon (1 Chronicles 22:8-10, 2 Chronicles 7:18)
The "spirit of the Lord" will be upon him, and he will have a "fear of God" (Isaiah 11:2)
Evil and tyranny will not be able to stand before his leadership (Isaiah 11:4)
Knowledge of God will fill the world (Isaiah 11:9)
He will include and attract people from all cultures and nations (Isaiah 11:10)
All Israelites will be returned to their homeland (Isaiah 11:12)
Death will be swallowed up forever (Isaiah 25:8)
There will be no more hunger or illness, and death will cease (Isaiah 25:8)
All of the dead will rise again (Isaiah 26:19)
The Jewish people will experience eternal joy and gladness (Isaiah 51:11)
He will be a messenger of peace (Isaiah 52:7)
Nations will recognize the wrongs they did to Israel (Isaiah 52:13 - 53:5)
The peoples of the world will turn to the Jews for spiritual guidance (Zechariah 8:23)
The ruined cities of Israel will be restored (Ezekiel 16:55)
Weapons of war will be destroyed (Ezekiel 39:9)
The people of Israel will have direct access to the Torah through their minds and Torah study will become the study of the wisdom of the heart (Jeremiah 31:33)
He will give you all the worthy desires of your heart (Psalms 37:4)
He will take the barren land and make it abundant and fruitful (Isaiah 51:3, Amos 9:13- 1 5, Ezekiel 36:29-30, Isaiah 11:6-9).
Some of the above points are open to discussion, qualification, and interpretation. In addition to all the above there are other references (e.g. in the Book of Psalms) that also have Messianic significance. The Coming of the Messiah is part and parcel of Biblical Prophecy in general. The extract below is therefore also pertinent:
The Fourteen Aims of Prediction according to Don Isaac Abarbanel (1437-1508) as Found in the Book of Isaiah:
1. Divine Retribution
That God will take revenge from those who harmed Israel,Cf. Isaiah 18:1.
2. Vengeance from Esau.
That revenge be taken against Edom and "Batsra" e.g. Bosrah cf. Isaiah 34:6:
3. The Salvation and Redemption of Israel and the ingathering of the exiles (Isaiah 11:11-12).
See Also: Isaiah 18:1, 26:1, 35:2, 49:8, 51:12, 60;1, 65:8, 66:1.
4. THE TEN TRIBES WILL RETURN (Isaiah 24:14).
5. Coming out of Egypt as a Prototype.
The future redemption will be similar in many aspects to the Redemption from Egypt, Isaiah 51:9, See Also: Isaiah 11:11.
6. There is a time limit after which Redemption has to come, deserved or not.
If we merit redemption sooner we will obtain it (Isaiah 34:8).
See Also: Isaiah 35:8 41:28, etc.
7. That the Redemption will occur a very long time after the Exile,
Isaiah 49: 14.
8. The Return of Prophecy.
In the time of Redemption Divine Presence and Prophecy will once again be found amongst the Israelites (Isaiah 11: 9, 14:5, 18:4, 60:1).
9. Wayward Jews Return to Judaism, Isaiah 43:1. See Also: Isaiah 59:20, 60:21.
10. Messiah son of David.
A king from the House of David will rule and be recognized as descended from David. He will possess wisdom and judgement, Isaiah 11:1-4. See Also: Isaiah 42:1.
11. No More Exile
After the final redemption there will be no additional exile. God will change human nature, Isaiah 51:22. See Also: Isaiah 52:1, 60:18.
12. Jerusalem will Teach the World.
After the final Redemption most of those nations who remain will accept the God of Israel and turn to Zion for instruction, Isaiah 22:2-4, See Also: Isaiah 18:1, 19:1.
13. There will be universal peace, Isaiah 65:25 See Also: Isaiah 2:4, 11:6, 19:23.
14. Resurrection of the Dead.