Biblical Evidence is Reality (12 July, 2015, 25 Tammuz, 5775)
[Adapted from "The Promise" a new work in preparation based on "Role to Rule" which is now out of print.]
Is DNA reliable?
Can We Rely on DNA findings?
In the short run, probably so. It can tell us, we assume, who we are, who our parents were, and who are our children.
Every now and again there are those who make claims against DNA findings but these are not taken seriously.
We tend to forget however that DNA analysis is a multi-million dollar industry. Many careers and the livelihood of countless professionals depend on the findings of DNA being accepted.
Who are we to endanger this?
Nevertheless if there was something seriously wrong with DNA Theory we would assumedly have heard more about it, somehow or other, by now. In the past the establishment used to rely on forensic science. We still do. Police experts tells us what physical and racial type unidentified bodies probably belonged to. They are usually right. It was proved long ago that physical features and typology (shape of heads, etc) were influenced by the environment. It does not really matter. From one generation to another enough of the physical features remain the same to enable the experts to establish physical connections. Nevertheless racial theories built on similarity of physical type are no longer entirely acceptable. Other factors may be involved.
The Roman Chronicler, Tacitus (Agricola, 11,12) described the Ancient Inhabitants of Britain thusly:
# As is so often the case among barbarians, it is difficult to say whether the men who first dwelt in Britain are indigenous or whether they came thither. We may deduce arguments from the fact that their physical characteristics differ. For the reddish-yellow hair of the inhabitants of Caledonia [in Scotland], as well as their sturdy limbs, point to a German origin; the swarthy complexion and curly hair of the Silures [in South Wales], together with their position opposite Gaul, make us believe that the Iberians in ancient times crossed over and seized these territories. Those who are nearest to the Gauls resemble them, whether from the persistence of heredity, or whether, since the lands stretch out opposite each other, the climate has given the same character to the individuals. #
That about sums it up.
Similarity of appearance may be due to mutual origins, or it may be attributed to environment influences. DNA often classifies different peoples according to YDNA haplogroups. These are transmitted along the male lines, from father to son. One example f such classification that may be questionable involve R1b which dominates the overwhelming majority of the peoples of Western Europe.
# Haplogroup R1b, also known as haplogroup R-M343, is the dominant paternal lineage of Western Europe. In human genetics, R1b is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe and in parts of sub-Saharan Central Africa (for example around Chad and Cameroon). R1b is present at lower frequencies throughout Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, and parts of North Africa, South Asia, and Siberia. Due to European emigration it reaches high frequencies in the Americas and Australia. While Western Europe is dominated by the R1b1a2 (R-M269) branch of R1b, the mostly Chadic-speaking area in Africa is dominated by the branch known as R1b1c (R-V88). These represent two very successful "twigs" on a much bigger "family tree". #
Most West Europeans belong to R1b. It has its highest frequencies in Ireland where more than 90% of the population belong to it. It is also found amongst major West African Negro populations at very high rates. It is again found amongst Mongoloid peoples of Central Asia including the Bashkirs (ca. 13%) and in some sections of them (e.g. the Pamirs) at about 80%.
Were all these peoples descended from the same original male ancestor?
We all come from Adam, the first man, so at some stage they must have been.
The question is,
"On the male line, are they closer to each other than they are to their neighbors who look like them but belong to different haplogroups?"
Are the differences between different groups of R1b populations in appearance, psychology, and culture to be ascribed to intermarriage with other peoples and environmental influences?
DNA science would answer, "Yes!", to such questions.
We are not so sure.
We however study the subject and try to keep abreast with the latest findings as they become available to the layman. We try not to discount anything that may help us understand what happened in the past while being prepared to abandon any source of evidence that is proven to be unreliable.
Good for us.
We may however use DNA as an example.
DNA experts say that people with the same haplogroup had the same ancestor:
Use conventional history to explain how that happened. If that does not fit assume that the history is wrong and find another explanation.
Meanwhile, the Bible tells us that a good portion of the Ancient Israelites were exiled, lost consciousness of their identity, and now are to be found among Western Peoples.
Our understanding of the relevant Biblical Passages in the Hebrew Bible is confirmed by Rabbinical Commentaries. Studies in History, archaeology, mythology, and other fields also confirm these conclusions. Evidence from all the different fields interlocks together, one proof confirms another,
We have written on these matters at length in our other works!
Even if such were not the case we could (like the DNA authorities) say,
"The Bible says it, work it out"!
The Biblical Prophecies Concerning the Ten Tribes
The 12 tribes of Israel split into 2 different sections. Ten of the Tribes were in the north. These were conquered by the Assyrians, taken into exile, and disappeared. It was prophesied that they would be Separate from Judah (Isaiah 11:12-13, 49:21) and Not Known to Judah (Isaiah 49:13-14, 21, Hosea 1:7).
We know that they were later to be found amongst western peoples because:
It was prophesied that the Israelites would possess the GATE(s) OF YOUR ENEMIES meaning International Strategic Points (Genesis 22:17 24:60). This, at the international level, is what the British Empire and after them the USA has done.
They would be the Dominant World Power (Numbers 24:7-9 Micah 5:7-9, Deuteronomy 33:27, 33:29, Jeremiah51:20-21); The Battle-Axe of the Almighty or "Police-Man of the Globe"(Jeremiah 51:20, Zechariah 10:7); and Defeat Edom meaning Germany and Europe (Ezekiel 25:14, Obadiah 1:18).
Peoples of West European origin especially those who are English-speaking have fulfilled all these.
They were to Rule Over OTHER Peoples (Genesis 27:29 48:19 Onkelos, Psalms 47:3); be Seafarers (Isaiah 42:10); an uplifting influence on other nations, a Light for the Gentiles (Genesis 12:2-3, 18:18-19, 22:18, Isaiah 42:1 42:6, Amos 5:14-15). They were to be symbolized by a Lion and Unicorn which is the Coat of Arms of of Britain (Numbers 24:7-9).
They were to be located at the Ends of the Earth meaning the geographical extremities of the continental land masses (Isaiah 24:16, 26:15, 41:8-9 43:6 49:6); to be associated with the ships of Tarshish that was associated with the Atlantic Ocean Area (Isaiah 60:9); to be mainly in the west (Isaiah 24:14, Hosea 1:10); and Northwest (Isaiah 49:12); in the "North" Land (Jeremiah 3:18, 31: 6-10); in Australia and New Zealand ("Land of Sinim", Isaiah 49:12); and in Zarephath, meaning France and Britain (Obadiah 1:20). They would be in Many Waters i.e. Several Oceans (Numbers 24:7).
There would be a pathway of megalithic monuments, "Dolmens", showing a Pathway of Migration leading from where they were back to the Land of Israel (Jeremiah 31:21). Such a pathway exists leading from the British Isles, Western Europe, Scandinavia, and tracing a track back to the Middle East and the area of Ancient Israel.
Compared to other nations they would have numerous populations (Genesis 15:5, 22:17, 24:60, 32:12, Numbers 23:10, Isaiah 10:22, 24:16, 26:15, Hosea 1:10); Agricultural Plenty (Genesis 27:28, 49:25, Deuteronomy 33:13-16, Hoshea 2:8); Mineral Resources (Genesis 49:25 Deuteronomy 33:13, 15); There are numerous additional other identifying points.
Taking all these and other indications together we end up with West European populations especially those of the British Isles whose offshoots include the peoples of North America, Australia, New Zealand, and many in South Africa.
The Biblical Proofs locating the Ten Tribes in the west are complemented and supported by Rabbinical Sources and secular fields of study.
Amongst the Israelite Tribes we find the figure of Joseph.
Ephraim and Manasseh were the sons of Joseph and they are usually mentioned as Tribes in their own right which is what they were.
Based on the names of tribes etc we have identified Joseph with peoples who settled in the British Isles. The USA was settled initially mainly from the north and west Britain and from Scotland and Ireland. These were areas where tribal names reminiscent of clans of Manasseh were more predominant. For this and other reasons (some we have discussed elsewhere) we identify the USA with Manasseh and Britain and her offshoots with Ephraim.
In addition the National Character profile of Joseph and especially of Manasseh, based on the Bible and Rabbinical Commentary, fits the USA.
Jacob blessed Joseph, "The blessings of your father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of JOSEPH, and on the crown of him that was separated from his brethren" (Genesis 49:6).
Ephraim and Manasseh
Before Jacob (israel) died he called to Joseph and blessed the sons of Joseph:
8 When Israel saw Josephs sons, he said, Who are these?
9 Joseph said to his father, They are my sons, whom God has given me here. And he said, Bring them to me, please, that I may bless them.
10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. So Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them.
11 And Israel said to Joseph, I never expected to see your face; and behold, God has let me see your offspring also.
12 Then Joseph removed them from his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth.
13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israels left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israels right hand, and brought them near him.
14 And Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on the head of Ephraim, who was the younger, and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands (for Manasseh was the firstborn).
15 And he blessed Joseph and said,
The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked,
the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day,
16 the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the boys;
and in them let my name be carried on, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac;
and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.
17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him, and he took his fathers hand to move it from Ephraims head to Manassehs head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, Not this way, my father; since this one is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head.
19 But his father refused and said, I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great. Nevertheless, his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his offspring shall become a multitude of nations.
20 So he blessed them that day, saying,
By you Israel will pronounce blessings, saying,
God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh.
Thus he put Ephraim before Manasseh.
21 Then Israel said to Joseph, Behold, I am about to die, but God will be with you and will bring you again to the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover, I have given to you rather than to your brothers one mountain slope that I took from the hand of the Amorites with my sword and with my bow.
Ephraim was blessed before Manasseh but Manasseh was promised that he too would be great. The promise to Manasseh indicated that he would achieve greatness AFTER Ephraim had already done so. The Bible (Genesis 48:8-17) tells us that Joseph brought his two sons Ephraim and Manasseh to receive a blessing from Jacob. Manasseh was the older and Joseph placed him to his left facing the right-hand side of Jacob.
Ephraim was the younger so Joseph placed him to his right facing the left-hand side of Jacob. Jacob however crossed his hands over. He placed his righthand on the head of Ephraim and his left on the hand of Manasseh. He placed Ephraim before Manasseh. He did not however change the position of the boys.
Manasseh remained on his right and Ephraim on his left. There are Rabbinical explanations that say the crossing over of the hands did not change the relative importance of the two but it did change the time schedule. From now on Ephraim was to receive his blessing BEFORE Manasseh.
Britain is Ephraim and has the characteristics of Ephraim. Manasseh was to become great AFTER Ephraim.
The USA is Manasseh and time-wise it did become great after Britain had enjoyed its power peak for quite some time.
The "Bnei Yissochar"(Tzvi Elimelech Shapira of Dinov (1784-1840) writes:
# Why did Jacob not command that Manasseh be placed on his left side and Ephraim on his right?
Why did Jacob have to cross his hands over?
The truth is that Manasseh is the firstborn!
This is why it says "GUIDING HIS HAND WITTINGLY" (Genesis 48:14). He did not change Manasseh over to the left side for in truth Manasseh is the firstborn and the most important but he put Ephraim before Manasseh concerning the chronological precedence #.
"Bnei Yissochar" is saying that:
Manasseh remained on the right hand side of Jacob. He fulfilled the destiny of Jacob and expressed more the inner being of Jacob. The left hand of Jacob was on the head of Manasseh. The left hand is the weaker hand and the slower one. It indicated that Manasseh would be slower to reach fruition.
Fishel Mael ("Hashevetim", Baltimore, USA, 5757, p.490) based on the above and other sources comments:
# The order of placing of the sons was important both in regards to their positioning concerning Joseph and in that concerning Jacob. Concerning Joseph.... Ephraim is the one who fulfills his place and most continues his path [of Joseph] ...Therefore Joseph set Ephraim on his right-hand side to show that Ephraim is the main principle of his might and the continuer of his path... However concerning Jacob it is just the opposite. Manasseh is closer ...to the path of Jacob...Jacob however guided his hands wittingly to indicate that the greatness of Manasseh would not be revealed so soon...Jacob agreed only that Manasseh remain at his right-hand side for he is destined to complete the quality ...of Jacob himself in the building of the Third Temple #.
The USA is Manasseh. Britain is Ephraim. The USA became great AFTER Britain. Fishel Mael has explained that Manasseh is a sense represents ALL of Israel whereas Ephraim was more specifically representative of Joseph. This was what the blessing and the change of hands entailed.