chs. 1 to 25. Vast Multitudes, the Oral Law, the Sages, Anglo-Saxon Society
The Staff of Moses
THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY
Deuteronomy chapters 1 to 25
THE WORDS THAT MOSES SPAKE
The Book of Deuteronomy is called â€œDevorimâ€ in Hebrew, meaning â€œwordsâ€, after â€œthe words which Moses spakeâ€ in the first verse of the book. This book contains repetitions of events and laws found in previous books alongside additional information concerning events, laws, and blessings.
After conquering the lands east of the Jordan River Moses addressed the people. He went through the stages of their wanderings. He told them they must conquer all of the Promised Land:
[Deuteronomy 1:7] TURN YOU, AND TAKE YOUR JOURNEY, AND GO TO THE MOUNT OF THE AMORITES, AND UNTO ALL THE PLACES NIGH THEREUNTO, IN THE PLAIN, IN THE HILLS, AND IN THE VALE, AND IN THE SOUTH, AND BY THE SEA SIDE, TO THE LAND OF THE CANAANITES, AND UNTO LEBANON, UNTO THE GREAT RIVER, THE RIVER EUPHRATES.
These borders include all of Lebanon, and all of Syria, right up to the Euphrates River. It all belongs to Israel.
[Deuteronomy 1:8] BEHOLD, I HAVE SET THE LAND BEFORE YOU: GO IN AND POSSESS THE LAND WHICH THE L-RD SWARE UNTO YOUR FATHERS, ABRAHAM, ISAAC, AND JACOB, TO GIVE UNTO THEM AND TO THEIR SEED AFTER THEM.
The Land was promised to their seed after them forever, as an inalienable possession.
[Deuteronomy 1:9] AND I SPAKE UNTO YOU AT THAT TIME, SAYING, I AM NOT ABLE TO BEAR YOU MYSELF ALONE:
[Deuteronomy 1:10] THE L-RD YOUR G-D HATH MULTIPLIED YOU, AND, BEHOLD, YE ARE THIS DAY AS THE STARS OF HEAVEN FOR MULTITUDE.
At that time they numbered 600,000 plus men between the ages of 20 and 60 and women and children and the elderly. This was a population of at least 3 million. There is also an opinion that every tribe except Levi practiced polygamy at that time, and this would have meant a much larger number.
Six Hundred Million Males Plus Their Families!
[Deuteronomy 1:11] THE L-RD G-D OF YOUR FATHERS MAKE YOU A THOUSAND TIMES SO MANY MORE AS YE ARE, AND BLESS YOU, AS HE HATH PROMISED YOU!
A thousand times 600,000 makes 600 million males Ã¬ on to which must be added females and children under the age of twenty and men over the age of 60.
Moses complained about the troublesomeness and contrariness of the Hebrew people:
[Deuteronomy 1:12] HOW CAN I MYSELF ALONE BEAR YOUR CUMBRANCE, AND YOUR BURDEN, AND YOUR STRIFE ?
They were a quarrelsome, squabbling people, everyone standing on his own rights and engaging in litigation. It was all on the shoulders of Moses, who took every case to heart.
[Deuteronomy 1:13] TAKE YOU WISE MEN, AND UNDERSTANDING, AND KNOWN AMONG YOUR TRIBES, AND I WILL MAKE THEM RULERS OVER YOU.
[Deuteronomy 1:14] AND YE ANSWERED ME, AND SAID, THE THING WHICH THOU HAST SPOKEN IS GOOD FOR US TO DO.
The Hebrew and Anglo-Saxon Divisions of Society
[Deuteronomy 1:15] SO I TOOK THE CHIEF OF YOUR TRIBES, WISE MEN, AND KNOWN, AND MADE THEM HEADS OVER YOU, CAPTAINS OVER THOUSANDS, AND CAPTAINS OVER HUNDREDS, AND CAPTAINS OVER FIFTIES, AND CAPTAINS OVER TENS, AND OFFICERS AMONG YOUR TRIBES.
Some of the â€œCelticâ€ tribes of what later became England and of Gaul are known to have divided themselves into units of ten thousands and probably smaller ones on the decimal scale as well. The ancient pagan Anglo-Saxons (who conquered England and settled there) also divided themselves into tens, fifties, hundreds, and thousands â€“ just like the ancient Hebrews who were their ancestors. Recent studies tend to claim that most inhabitants of Britain descend from the â€œCelticâ€ natives and that the Anglo-Saxons were a small minority who conquered the land and imposed their language. This is doubtful. The new Anglo-Saxon patterns of settlement, culture, language, and customs were too different and too widespread not to imply colonization of the conquered land by large numbers. It is worth repeated here that the â€œCelticâ€ natives of Britain did not call themselves â€œCeltsâ€ but rather â€œIberiâ€ or â€œHiberiâ€ meaning â€œHebrewsâ€.
[Deuteronomy 1:16] AND I CHARGED YOUR JUDGES AT THAT TIME, SAYING, HEAR THE CAUSES BETWEEN YOUR BRETHREN, AND JUDGE RIGHTEOUSLY BETWEEN EVERY MAN AND HIS BROTHER, AND THE STRANGER THAT IS WITH HIM.
The â€œSTRANGERâ€ is to be respected and treated equally. This does not necessarily mean that the land is to be turned over to masses of newcomers of entirely different origin and values. The STRANGER was an exception. It says, â€œTHE STRANGER THAT IS WITH HIM â€ meaning that identifies with him and has been accepted by him.
[Deuteronomy 1:17] YE SHALL NOT RESPECT PERSONS IN JUDGMENT; BUT YE SHALL HEAR THE SMALL AS WELL AS THE GREAT; YE SHALL NOT BE AFRAID OF THE FACE OF MAN; FOR THE JUDGMENT IS G-D'S: AND THE CAUSE THAT IS TOO HARD FOR YOU, BRING IT UNTO ME, AND I WILL HEAR IT.
Everyone was to be equal before the Law. This is what Moses taught. It was always there in the Bible. Not until the French and American Revolutions did this principle become widely accepted amongst civilized peoples. It is interesting that the French and American Revolutions began a rethinking in Western Society about man and government and human rights. The French Revolution was carried out by descendants of Reuben, the natural first-born son of Israel. The American War of Independence was conducted by descendants of Manasseh, son of Joseph rebelling against the rule of his brother Ephraim. Joseph had received the rights of the first-born instead of Reuben. Ephraim had likewise replaced Manasseh concerning the first-born priority.
[Deuteronomy 1:18] AND I COMMANDED YOU AT THAT TIME ALL THE THINGS WHICH YE SHOULD DO.
They were commanded then to do these things forever.
The Amorites and the Cimmerian King of â€œAmuruâ€
[Deuteronomy 1:19] AND WHEN WE DEPARTED FROM HOREB, WE WENT THROUGH ALL THAT GREAT AND TERRIBLE WILDERNESS, WHICH YE SAW BY THE WAY OF THE MOUNTAIN OF THE AMORITES, AS THE L-RD OUR G-D COMMANDED US; AND WE CAME TO KADESHBARNEA.
[Deuteronomy 1:20] AND I SAID UNTO YOU, YE ARE COME UNTO THE MOUNTAIN OF THE AMORITES, WHICH THE L-RD OUR G-D DOTH GIVE UNTO US.
In the Bible, the Amorites are largely linked with the region east of the Jordan River. On the other hand, the whole region of the Land of Israel, on both sides of the Jordan, was known as â€œAmuruâ€ or Land of the Amorites to foreigners. The term â€œAmurruâ€ was applied even after the Israelites had conquered and settled the Land. Israelites were referred to as â€œAmurruâ€ by foreigners. The Ten Tribes were exiled and became identified with the Cimmerians and Scythians. The King of the Cimmerians was later referred to by the Assyrians as â€œKing of Amurruâ€. This indicates a connection with Israel. The Cimmerians moved westward and became a founding element in Celtic Civilization.
[Deuteronomy 1:21] BEHOLD, THE L-RD THY G-D HATH SET THE LAND BEFORE THEE: GO UP AND POSSESS IT, AS THE L-RD G-D OF THY FATHERS HATH SAID UNTO THEE; FEAR NOT, NEITHER BE DISCOURAGED.
Do not fear.
Moses recalled the story of the spies who were sent out, â€œTWELVE MEN OF YOU, ONE OF A TRIBEâ€ [Deuteronomy 1:23]. As a result of the report of the spies, the people rebelled and G-D punished them ( 1:35). Moses told how Edom, Moab, and Amon would not let the people pass so they had to circumvent them. They then conquered the Kingdom of Bashan, ruled by Og (3:1-4). Moses gave a list of the places conquered including Hermon:
[Deuteronomy 3:9] WHICH HERMON THE SIDONIANS CALL SIRION; AND THE AMORITES CALL IT SHENIR.
Rashi: â€œShenir. Means SNOW in the language of Ashkenaz and in the language of Canaanâ€. Commentators on Rashi have shown that by â€œAshkenazâ€ he intended â€œGermanyâ€ and by â€œ Canaanâ€ he meant the Slavs. This is correct. Rashi is providing us with linguistic evidence of a connection between the ancient Amorites and the German and Slavic inhabitants of Central Europe.
[Deuteronomy 3:11] FOR ONLY OG KING OF BASHAN REMAINED OF THE REMNANT OF GIANTS; BEHOLD HIS BEDSTEAD WAS A BEDSTEAD OF IRON; IS IT NOT IN RABBATH OF THE CHILDREN OF AMMON? NINE CUBITS WAS THE LENGTH THEREOF, AND FOUR CUBITS THE BREADTH OF IT, AFTER THE CUBIT OF A MAN.
Og, the King of the Amorites was a â€œgiantâ€. It is interesting that Hitler considered himself to be a remnant of the â€œGiantâ€ race. In Scandinavian Mythology, the heroes make war against the â€œGiantsâ€ and in the Last Days the Final Battle will be fought against them.
[Deuteronomy 3:12] AND THIS LAND, WHICH WE POSSESSED AT THAT TIME, FROM AROER, WHICH IS BY THE RIVER ARNON, AND HALF MOUNT GILEAD, AND THE CITIES THEREOF, GAVE I UNTO THE REUBENITES AND TO THE GADITES.
[Deuteronomy 3:13] AND THE REST OF GILEAD, AND ALL BASHAN, BEING THE KINGDOM OF OG, GAVE I UNTO THE HALF TRIBE OF MANASSEH; ALL THE REGION OF ARGOB, WITH ALL BASHAN, WHICH WAS CALLED THE LAND OF GIANTS.
Yair in Israel and Britain
[Deuteronomy 3:14] JAIR THE SON OF MANASSEH TOOK ALL THE COUNTRY OF ARGOB UNTO THE COASTS OF GESHURI AND MAACHATHI; AND CALLED THEM AFTER HIS OWN NAME, BASHANHAVOTHJAIR, UNTO THIS DAY.
Jair is Yair. This person fathered an important clan. They made conquests up to the Euphrates and beyond it, and were referred to in Mesopotamian records as the IARI. Later they became an element in Celtic Britain and gave their name to places in Ireland and Scotland.
This was discussed in detail in chapter seven on Numbers 32:41-32,
"Yair in the Bible"
<<BASHANHAVOTHJAIR>> or BASHAN- HAVOTH- JAIR meaning BASHAN-(the area of Bashan)- HAVOTH- (townships of) â€“JAIR i.e. â€œThe Townships of Yair in Bashanâ€.
[Deuteronomy 3:15] AND I GAVE GILEAD UNTO MACHIR.
The two and a half tribes who received lands east of the Jordan had to send men to assist the other tribes conquer the Land of Canaan west of the Jordan [ 3:18].
[Deuteronomy 3:21] AND I COMMANDED JOSHUA AT THAT TIME, SAYING, THINE EYES HAVE SEEN ALL THAT THE L-RD YOUR G-D HATH DONE UNTO THESE TWO KINGS: SO SHALL THE L-RD DO UNTO ALL THE KINGDOMS WHITHER THOU PASSEST.
[Deuteronomy 3:22] YE SHALL NOT FEAR THEM: FOR THE L-RD YOUR G-D HE SHALL FIGHT FOR YOU.
Joshua from the tribe of Ephraim was appointed as the future successor of Moses ( 3:27).
The People were exhorted to keep the commandments (4:1) that would be especially important in the Land they were about to conquer (4:5). They were reminded that they were all physically present at the Mountain of Sinai when G-D made His Presence known unto them (5:4) and gave them His Law (4:12). Keeping the commandments is connected with possessing the Land ( 4:14). They were commanded to worship no other G-D apart from G-D (5:6).
[Deuteronomy 5:9] THOU SHALT NOT BOW DOWN THYSELF UNTO THEM, NOR SERVE THEM: FOR I THE L-RD THY G-D AM A JEALOUS G-D, VISITING THE INIQUITY OF THE FATHERS UPON THE CHILDREN UNTO THE THIRD AND FOURTH GENERATION OF THEM THAT HATE ME,
[Deuteronomy 5:10] AND SHEWING MERCY UNTO THOUSANDS OF THEM THAT LOVE ME AND KEEP MY COMMANDMENTS.
[Deuteronomy 5:11] THOU SHALT NOT TAKE THE NAME OF THE L-RD THY G-D IN VAIN: FOR THE L-RD WILL NOT HOLD HIM GUILTLESS THAT TAKETH HIS NAME IN VAIN.
Exhortations to Israel
The Israelites were told to keep the Sabbath Day (Deuteronomy 5:12) and remember that they had been slaves in the Land of Egypt (5:15), to honor their father and mother (5:16), not to kill (5:17), or to commit adultery, meaning not to take the woman of another man. They were commanded not to steal ( 5:19), or bear false witness or desire the woman or possessions of another ( 5:21). They were told to drive out the non-Israelite inhabitants of Canaan and not to intermarry with them (7:3). The reason given was that they should not learn bad habits from foreigners (7:4). The commandment was not a racial directive in the modern sense. They were warned that if they went after other G-Ds they would be expelled from the Land ( 8:19).
They were commanded to respect the resident alien:
[Deuteronomy 10:19] LOVE YE THEREFORE THE STRANGER: FOR YE WERE STRANGERS IN THE LAND OF EGYPT.
They were promised all of the Land:
[Deuteronomy 11:24] EVERY PLACE WHEREON THE SOLES OF YOUR FEET SHALL TREAD SHALL BE YOURS: FROM THE WILDERNESS AND LEBANON, FROM THE RIVER, THE RIVER EUPHRATES, EVEN UNTO THE UTTERMOST SEA SHALL YOUR COAST BE.
The Israelites were commanded to establish a central location for the worship of G-D.
[Deuteronomy 12:5] BUT UNTO THE PLACE WHICH THE L-RD YOUR G-D SHALL CHOOSE OUT OF ALL YOUR TRIBE TO PUT HIS NAME THERE, EVEN UNTO HIS HABITATION SHALL YE SEEK, AND THITHER THOU SHALT COME:
The Israelites were commanded not to go in the ways of the nations around them (12:30), and not to offer up human sacrifices (12:31). The Israelites however, did follow after the other peoples and adopt their sacrifices. For that reason, the Lost Ten Tribes were exiled (2-Kings chapter 17). Part of the Lost Ten tribes merged with â€œCelticâ€ peoples in the west. The â€œCelticâ€ peoples of Britain worshipped Middle Eastern G-Ds such as the baal, and practiced a mixture of Hebraic and Canaanite customs. A prophet who advocated idolatry was to be put to death (13:5).
The Israelites were promised that if they kept the Law G-D would bless them:
[Deuteronomy 15:4] SAVE WHEN THERE SHALL BE NO POOR AMONG YOU; FOR THE L-RD SHALL GREATLY BLESS THEE IN THE LAND WHICH THE L-RD THY G-D GIVETH THEE FOR AN INHERITANCE TO POSSESS IT:
[Deuteronomy 15:5] ONLY IF THOU CAREFULLY HEARKEN UNTO THE VOICE OF THE L-RD THY G-D, TO OBSERVE TO DO ALL THESE COMMANDMENTS WHICH I COMMAND THEE THIS DAY.
Israel Was to Become a Nation That Would Lend Money to Other Nations and Not Borrow From Them
[Deuteronomy 15:6] FOR THE L-RD THY G-D BLESSETH THEE, AS HE PROMISED THEE: AND THOU SHALT LEND UNTO MANY NATIONS, BUT THOU SHALT NOT BORROW; AND THOU SHALT REIGN OVER MANY NATIONS, BUT THEY SHALL NOT REIGN OVER THEE.
The USA has lent money to every single nation in the world today. Some say that this is an additional proof that the USA is dominated by descendants of Israel, since through the USA the blessing of lending and not borrowing on an international level has been fulfilled. There may be something in this. Nevertheless the wording of this blessing makes it contingent on keeping the commandments. The other blessings that were fulfilled were given unconditionally. Is it that since the Israelites from the Lost Ten Tribes in the USA are temporarily not obligated at this time to keep the Law that G-D has let them have this blessing? It may be that the good that they do has been considered in their case, as keeping (at least partially) their part of the Covenant.
The Israelites were commanded to maintain social justice and assist the poor and enable those who had fallen on hard times to get back on their feet (15:7). This was one of the aims of the Sabbatical Year (15:9-15). They were commanded to keep the festivals and offer up sacrifices, and require at least two witnesses for criminal convictions ( 19:15).
Authority for the Rule of the Sages and the Oral Tradition
The Israelites were commanded to set up a system whereby controversial matters concerning the Law could be decided. Decisions reached in the relevant courts were to be final and to have the sanctity of the Law itself.
[Deuteronomy 17:8] IF THERE ARISE A MATTER TOO HARD FOR THEE IN JUDGMENT, BETWEEN BLOOD AND BLOOD , BETWEEN PLEA AND PLEA, AND BETWEEN STROKE AND STROKE, BEING MATTERS OF CONTROVERSY WITHIN THY GATES: THEN SHALT THOU ARISE, AND GET THEE UP INTO THE PLACE WHICH THE L-RD THY G-D SHALL CHOOSE;
[Deuteronomy 17:9] AND THOU SHALT COME UNTO THE PRIESTS THE LEVITES, AND UNTO THE JUDGE THAT SHALL BE IN THOSE DAYS, AND ENQUIRE; AND THEY SHALL SHEW THEE THE SENTENCE OF JUDGMENT:
[Deuteronomy 17:10] AND THOU SHALT DO ACCORDING TO THE SENTENCE, WHICH THEY OF THAT PLACE WHICH THE L-RD SHALL CHOOSE SHALL SHEW THEE; AND THOU SHALT OBSERVE TO DO ACCORDING TO ALL THAT THEY INFORM THEE:
[Deuteronomy 17:11] ACCORDING TO THE SENTENCE OF THE LAW WHICH THEY SHALL TEACH THEE, AND ACCORDING TO THE JUDGMENT WHICH THEY SHALL TELL THEE, THOU SHALT DO: THOU SHALT NOT DECLINE FROM THE SENTENCE WHICH THEY SHALL SHEW THEE, TO THE RIGHT HAND, NOR TO THE LEFT.
[Deuteronomy 17:12] AND THE MAN THAT WILL DO PRESUMPTUOUSLY, AND WILL NOT HEARKEN UNTO THE PRIEST THAT STANDETH TO MINISTER THERE BEFORE THE L-RD THY G-D, OR UNTO THE JUDGE, EVEN THAT MAN SHALL DIE: AND THOU SHALT PUT AWAY THE EVIL FROM ISRAEL.
[Deuteronomy 17:13] AND ALL THE PEOPLE SHALL HEAR, AND FEAR, AND DO NO MORE PRESUMPTUOUSLY.
Commandments and Standards of Behavior
A sign of a false prophet was a prophecy that did not come to pass (18:22). In warfare if they took a woman captive in certain circumstances they would be allowed to marry her (21:11). They were commanded to respect Edomites and Egyptians:
[Deuteronomy 23:7] THOU SHALT NOT ABHOR AN EDOMITE; FOR HE IS THY BROTHER: THOU SHALT NOT ABHOR AN EGYPTIAN; BECAUSE THOU WAST A STRANGER IN HIS LAND.
[Deuteronomy 23:8] THE CHILDREN THAT ARE BEGOTTEN OF THEM SHALL ENTER INTO THE CONGREGATION OF THE L-RD IN THEIR THIRD GENERATION.
They were commanded to maintain standards of sexual morality:
[Deuteronomy 23:17] THERE SHALL BE NO WHORE OF THE DAUGHTERS OF ISRAEL, NOR A SODOMITE OF THE SONS OF ISRAEL.
Standards of Social justice were frequently repeated and emphasized:
[Deuteronomy 24:17] THOU SHALT NOT PERVERT THE JUDGMENT OF THE STRANGER, NOR OF THE FATHERLESS; NOR TAKE A WIDOW'S RAIMENT TO PLEDGE:
[Deuteronomy 24:18] BUT THOU SHALT REMEMBER THAT THOU WAST A BONDMAN IN EGYPT, AND THE L-RD THY G-D REDEEMED THEE THENCE: THEREFORE I COMMAND THEE TO DO THIS THING.
[Deuteronomy 25:14] THOU SHALT NOT HAVE IN THINE HOUSE DIVERS MEASURES, A GREAT AND A SMALL.
[Deuteronomy 25:15] BUT THOU SHALT HAVE A PERFECT AND JUST WEIGHT, A PERFECT AND JUST MEASURE SHALL THOU HAVE: THAT THY DAYS MAY BE LENGTHENED IN THE LAND WHICH THE L-RD THY G-D GIVETH THEE.
One should not treat or tolerate crooked dealing. Even if people do not necessarily suffer from this it is against the will of G-D. Honesty is the best policy. It brings a long life.
The Destruction of Amalek
Amalek was descended from Esau through Eliphaz (Genesis 36:12). The Amalekites had gratuitously and viciously attacked the Israelites when they came out of Egypt. Vengeance was to be taken against Amalek:
[Deuteronomy 25:17] REMEMBER WHAT AMALEK DID UNTO THEE BY THE WAY, WHEN YE WERE COME FORTH OUT OF EGYPT:
[Deuteronomy 25:18] HOW HE MET THEE BY THE WAY, AND SMOTE THE HINDMOST OF THEE, EVEN ALL THAT WERE FEEBLE BEHIND THEE, WHEN THOU WAST FAINT AND WEARY; AND HE FEARED NOT G-D.
[Deuteronomy 25:19] THEREFORE IT SHALL BE, WHEN THE L-RD THY G-D HATH GIVEN THEE REST FROM ALL THINE ENEMIES ROUND ABOUT, IN THE LAND WHICH THE L-RD THY G-D GIVETH THEE FOR AN INHERITANCE TO POSSESS IT, THAT THOU SHALT BLOT OUT THE REMEMBRANCE OF AMALEK FROM UNDER HEAVEN; THOU SHALT NOT FORGET IT.
We see from the above that the Israelites had the same unitary divisions of society as those later employed by the Anglo-Saxons. It was promised that they would increase a thousand fold which taken literally meant a population of very much more than 600 million people. The clan of Yair became important in the Middle East and later in the British Isles. The Israelites would lend and not borrow.