VeZot-HaBracah, Deuteronomy 33:1-34:12 (11 September, 2013, Tishrei 7, 5774)
Duration: 32:36 minutes. To Read Text Please Scroll Down!
This portion is VERY IMPORTANT from the point of view of Lost Ten Tribes Brit-Am Identity Proof!
Just to remind you that this series is based on the weekly Torah reading of Jewish Synagogues. Each weekly section has a traditional name derived from the first or second word it begins with. This week's section is named "VeZot HaBrocah" after the second word in Hebrew from the beginning: "VeZot HaBrocah" means: "AND THIS IS THE BLESSING".
This is the last portion of the Book of Devorim (Deuteronomy) and of the Torah Reading Cycle for the Hebrew Year.
This section will be read in the Land of Israel on Shemini Atseret which falls on the day after Succoth. Outside of Israel it will be read a day later, on Simchat Torah.
After this portion we shall begin the cycle once again starting from Breishit which is the first portion in the Book of Genesis.
1 This is the blessing with which Moses, the man of God, blessed the Israelites before his death.
THE MAN OF GOD: Moses was the greatest prophet who ever existed or who ever will be. God spoke to him (and to him alone) directly.
10 Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face.
[Numbers 12:6] AND HE SAID, HEAR NOW MY WORDS: IF THERE BE A PROPHET AMONG YOU, I THE LORD WILL MAKE MYSELF KNOWN UNTO HIM IN A VISION, AND WILL SPEAK UNTO HIM IN A DREAM.
[Numbers 12:7] MY SERVANT MOSES IS NOT SO, WHO IS FAITHFUL IN ALL MINE HOUSE.
[Numbers 12:8] WITH HIM WILL I SPEAK MOUTH TO MOUTH, EVEN APPARENTLY, AND NOT IN DARK SPEECHES; AND THE SIMILITUDE OF THE LORD SHALL HE BEHOLD...
2 He said:
The LORD came from Sinai,
and dawned from Seir upon us;
he shone forth from Mount Paran.
With him were myriads of holy ones;
at his right, a host of his own.
THE LORD CAME FROM SINAI. God revealed Himself on Mount Sinai to all the people. This tradition proves itself. An individual can make a claim that he received such and such a revelation and you may or may not believe him. If a whole community numbering several million people have a tradition, then it must be accepted since millions of people cannot invent such notions regarding all of themselves. This reasoning (in a more refined style) is found in the writings of Maimonides and others and was extensively expounded upon by Rabbi Yehudah HaLevi (c.1075-1141 CE).
3 Indeed, O favourite among peoples,
all his holy ones were in your charge;
they marched at your heels,
accepted direction from you.
4 Moses charged us with the law,
as a possession for the assembly of Jacob.
a possession for the assembly of Jacob: The Law is the inheritance of all Israel. The Lost Ten Tribes are temporarily absolved from the Law. At the individual level they are now considered as Gentiles. In the future the Ten Tribes will return, receive affirmation of their Israelite identity, and re-accept the Law. This will happen in the future and we can leave it like that.Â Judah at present is not aware as to who the Lost Ten Tribes really are. They do not know the identification of Joseph.
Brit-Am the Ten Tribes Movement considers itself to some degree as Representative of BOTH Judah and Joseph.
Differences of opinion exist as to what the Duties and Rights of the Ten Tribes at this stage should be.
These controversies are in effect a waste of time. Sometimes we suspect they are put forward with negative ulterior motivations.
The First Priority at this time should be to spread knowledge of Israelite Ancestry and to arouse public opinion about it.
That is what Brit-Am/Hebrew Nations tries to do.
5 There arose a king in Jeshurun,
when the leaders of the people assembled,
the united tribes of Israel.
JESHURUN (pronounced Yeshurun) is another name for Israel. A Phoenician inscription has been found linking the name Yeshurun with the Phoenician city of Tyre.
THE UNITED TRIBES OF ISRAEL: The concept of Tribes is very important in the Bible. Unity is a concept of great value in Biblical Thought but not at any price.
There follows a blessing to each of the individual Tribes. These blessings reflect those given in Genesis 48.
The Commentators naturally considered the Blessings of Moses to the individual Tribes as an extension to the Blessings of Jacob to the separate Tribal Ancestors in Genesis chapter 48. They therefore often when commentating on Genesis 48 discussed also the Blessings of Deuteronomy 33.
6 May Reuben live, and not die out,
even though his numbers are few.
We identify Reuben with groups that settled primarily in France and greatly influenced the French national character: passionate, unstable, cultured, refined, sensitive, justice-seekers, daring, etc.
7And this he said of Judah:
O LORD, give heed to Judah,
and bring him to his people;
strengthen his hands for him,
and be a help against his adversaries.
JUDAH represents the present-day Jews. Other tribes prominent amongst the Jews include Simeon, Levi, and Benjamin all of which are considered in this study.
O LORD, give heed to Judah. The word "HEAR" in Hebrew is "shema" which sounds similar to Shime-on. According to tradition the expression "shema" here is hinting at Simeon [in Hebrew "Shimea-on"] who is NOT mentioned expressly in the blessings of this portion. Throughout the Bible a quorum of twelve tribes is maintained though actually there were 13 tribes. The quorum is maintained by either subsuming Simeon with Judah, or leaving out Levi who was scattered throughout the other tribes, or counting Ephraim and Menasseh together as the one tribe of Joseph.
As stated above, the word "HEAR" in Hebrew is "shema". This is the name given to the declaration of Jewish martyrs throughout the ages.
Hear, O Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord alone (Deuteronomy 6:4).
Jews throughout the ages went to their deaths rather than abjure their faith.
The Bible says that Judah will be greatly rewarded for this.
BRING HIM UNTO HIS PEOPLE: Judah needs to be reconciled with the Lost Ten Tribes. In the End Times this will take place.
strengthen his hands for him: When help from God is forthcoming Judah is not somebody to mess around with.
his adversaries: Judah has a lot of enemies and needs help from God.
8 And of Levi he said:
Give to Levi your Thummim,
and your Urim to your loyal one,
whom you tested at Massah,
with whom you contended at the waters of Meribah;
LEVI is primarily amongst the present-day Jews. Both Judah and Levi are linked strongly with the Law and both are to be found mainly amongst the Jewish people. Small offshoots of Levi were also to be found elsewhere, e.g. in Northern Italy and according to many amongst the Welsh.
A section of the Tribe of Levi in popular Jewish Tradition were known as THE SONS OF MOSES. These are associated with the Lost Ten Tribes. One Jewish tradition located THE SONS OF MOSES as well as the Lost Tribes in the West, in Gaul (France and the north) and the British Isles.
THE SONS OF MOSES
9 who said of his father and mother,
I regard them not;
he ignored his kin,
and did not acknowledge his children.
For they observed your word,
and kept your covenant.
A Jew who leaves the Jewish Religion in effect ceases to be Jewish. People who missionize Jews are the enemies of the Jewish People even though they claim otherwise and in some cases are genuinely mistaken.
10 They teach Jacob your ordinances,
and Israel your law;
they place incense before you,
and whole burnt-offerings on your altar.
ISRAEL YOUR LAW: The LTTs (Lost Ten Tribes) at some stage will learn the Law anew. Perhaps descendants of Levi will be prominent in the
teaching that this will involve.
Many Rabbis and Rabbinical Authorities appear to be descended from Levi.
11 Bless, O LORD, his substance,
and accept the work of his hands;
crush the loins of his adversaries,
of those that hate him, so that they do not rise again.
crush the loins of his adversaries: Levi and Judah are prominent amongst the Jews and here we have a warning to those who would seek to harm them to be careful. The Hasmonean Dynasty who led the Maccabee Revolt against Helenization were Cohens i.e. Priests from the Tribe of Levi.
12 Of Benjamin he said:
The beloved of the LORD rests in safety
the High God surrounds him all day long
the beloved rests between his shoulders.
BENJAMIN is also dominant amongst the present day Jews. The Jews of Romania had a tradition that they were descended from Benjamin. We have traced descendants of Benjamin to the Normans who conquered England in 1066 and to the Belgae (Walloons) of Belgium. Present-day Belgium is comprised of French-speaking Walloons and Flemish who speak a German-type dialect. Israelites are present amongst both groups but in World War-2 it was the Walloons who were the most opposed to German occupation. The Walloons descend from the ancient Celtic Belgae. Belgae were also present in Britain and Ireland.
Many claim that Benjamin is also prominent in Norway. There is something in this though Norway as a whole was dominated by Naphtali.
the beloved rests between his shoulders: This is referring to God who will dwell (make HIS presence felt) in the Temple. Jerusalem was never formally divided amongst the Tribes BUT if it had have been then the division between Benjamin and Judah would have run through the Temple area. The most holy section of the Temple would have been in the portion of Benjamin.
13 And of Joseph he said:
Blessed by the LORD be his land,
with the choice gifts of heaven above,
and of the deep that lies beneath;
This says that Joseph was blessed with agricultural prosperity, healthy lands, and mineral resources in plenty.
14 with the choice fruits of the sun,
and the rich yield of the months;
Some plants need a set number of hours of both daylight and darkness. Certain plants require moonlight. The moon may well have more of an influence on both plant and animal life than we realize at present.
Rabbi Yehudah HaLevi said (in another context) that the sun represents European Christians and the moon stands for Islam. We could extend the allegory and suggest that Joseph was to receive through trade and conquest the possessions of both the European and Islamic worlds.
15 with the finest produce of the ancient mountains,
and the abundance of the everlasting hills;
Food products and Mineral resources.
16 with the choice gifts of the earth and its fullness,
and the favour of the one who dwells on Sinai.
Let these come on the head of Joseph,
on the brow of the prince among his brothers.
choice gifts of the earth: Agricultural plenty.
the prince among his brothers also translated as SEPARATE FROM HIS BRETHREN.
In Hebrew the expression is "Nazir Echav".Â Both possibilities exist.
The expression is repeated from the separate blessing of Jacob to Joseph in Genesis 49:26 were it was said that Joseph would receive a blessing beyond that which would accrue to the other Tribes who would also be blessed as descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
This expression can mean both "a prince over his brothers" or "separate from his brothers".Â There is a play on words here.
"Nazir" can mean both "separated from" e.g. we have the Nazir (Nazirite) who separates himself from wine and impurity.
Nezer (from the same word root) can also mean crown e.g.
AND I TOOK THE CROWN [Hebrew: "nezer"] THAT WAS UPON HIS HEAD (2-Samuel 1:10).
It follows that the expression concerning Joseph "Nazir Echav" could alternately mean "crowned over his brothers".
THAT WAS SEPARATED FROM HIS BRETHREN:Â Joseph was apart from his brothers.
Steven Collins has pointed out that "Joseph shall be set apart from his brothers" [separate from his brothers].
# has happened geographically in the modern world. The USA, British Isles, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are all physically separated by bodies of water from the other Israelite tribes on mainland Europe or Scandinavia. #
17 A firstborn bull-majesty is his!
His horns are the horns of a RAEM [wild ox or unicorn]
with them he gores the peoples,
driving them to the ends of the earth;
such are the myriads of Ephraim,
such the thousands of Manasseh.
bull: John "Bull" is a nickname for Britain. England is named after the Angles who were also known as "Aegloi".
In Ancient Northern Germanic dialects as well as in Ashkenazic Hebrew "Angle" was another way of pronouncing "Aegel".Â The Angles (Aegels) joined with a group known as Saxons and invaded England. The name England means "Angle-Land".
In Hebrew Aegel means bull-calf. Aegel is a nickname in the Bible for Ephraim, cf. Jeremiah 31:18.
The name England (Angle-Land) may actually be considered to mean "The Land of the Bull-Calf" i.e. the Land of Ephraim.
The unicorn was originally the symbol of Scotland. The Coat of arms of Scotland bears two unicorns. When Scotland was unified with England the unicorn (together with the lion) became a symbol of Britain.
The word for Unicorn in Hebrew is "raem". "Unicorn" really is a legitimate translation of raem, though the word also connotes "auroch". An auroch was a kind of gigantic wild bull that still existed in some parts of Europe until less than 500 or so years ago. There may once have been several types of one-horned animals. One of these appears to have been a species of auroch in which the one-horn mutation was common though not necessarily omnipresent.
At all events, a one-horned animal once existed. It was recorded and depicted by both the Assyrians and the Celts of Western Europe. It is depicted on the Gundestropp caukdron that was found in Denmark but is believed to be Celtic in origin.
It looks like a thinnish auroch but with a bit of imagination could also be compared to a horse-type large goat or wild deer. Interestingly enough it was to the Assyrians as a "Sacaea".Â This was also a name given to the Scythians amongst whom we found a significant proportion of Israelite Exiles from the Ten Tribes.
Unicorns Did Exist!!
Britain has the unicorn as an official symbol. This alone is worth considering. The unicorn in the British Arms is taken from Scotland and intended to represent Scotland in which at one stage there were many from Manasseh. The majority of "Anglos" (not counting the Irish) in the USA are from Scotland or Scots-Irish. Most (more than 80%) US presidents are to a large part of Scot-Irish ancestry. Even President Barak Hussein Obama has a mother of Scots-Irish origin!
The verse according to various Hebrew commentators may be read thusly:
17 He will received his glory from the firstling of his bull [Ephraim];
His (Manasseh) horns are immensely powerful like those of a Raem:
With these horns he shall batter other peoples
They (Ephraim and Manasseh) will be together until the ends (extreme points when the Land of Israel is the center) of the earth
and they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, that are multiplied a thousands times over together with those of Manasseh.
[For the meaning and implications of "Revavah" (multiplication) see:
Manasseh in Rabbinical Sources
In the Last days a leader (Messiah), will arise from Joseph and is referred to Mashia(c)h ben Yoseph. He will lead the Ten Tribes. He is distinct from the Mashia(c)h ben David who will come from Judah and eventually lead all Israel.
Mashia(c)h ben Yoseph is usually taken to be someone from Ephraim and a descendant of Jeroboam the son of Nebat. Jeroboam caused the initial division between Joseph and Judah and his descendant will heal it.
One source indicates that as well as the Mashia(c)h ben Yoseph from Ephraim there will also arise an Annointed Leader from Manasseh as well as someone representing Elijah who will emerge from Gilead probably meaning either Ulster or the Bible Belt of the USA.
Midrash (Numbers) Naso 14;1:
##... GILEAD IS MINE, AND MANASSEH IS MINE; EPHRAIM ALSO IS THE STRENGTH OF MINE HEAD; JUDAH IS MY LAWGIVER [Psalms 60:7].
"GILEAD IS MINE", this is Eliyahu who dwelt in Gilead.Â
"MANASSEH IS MINE", this is the Messiah who comes from the descendants of Manassah as it says, GIVE EAR, O SHEPHERD OF ISRAEL, THOU THAT LEADEST JOSEPH LIKE A FLOCK; THOU THAT DWELLEST BETWEEN THE CHERUBIMS, SHINE FORTH.] BEFORE EPHRAIM AND BENJAMIN AND MANASSEH STIR UP THY STRENGTH, AND COME AND SAVE US [Psalms 80:1-2].
EPHRAIM ALSO IS THE STRENGTH OF MINE HEAD [Psalms 60:7]. This is the Anointed One [Messiah] for War who comes from Ephraim as it says, HIS GLORY IS LIKE THE FIRSTLING OF HIS BULL [Deuteronomy 33:17].
JUDAH IS MY LAWGIVER [Psalms 60:7]. This is the Final Deliverer (Redeemer) who comes from the descendants of David. ##
Re: "Brit-Am Now"-537
in a comment on Deuteronomy 33:17, where it speaks of the future blessing of Joseph:
.. the "tens of thousands" of Ephraim and the "thousands" of Manasseh refers to the numbers of people pushed together, not the number of people in Ephraim and Manasseh, respectively. In other words, is it saying that Ephraim will affect greater portions of the globe and mankind than Manasseh? ...
We replied that this alternative is a possibility and that the Sages tend to interpret the verse along the same lines as he (David Jackson) did:
This suggestion would solve the problem that we had with this verse in the light of our identifying Ephraim primarily with Britain and Manasseh with the USA.
The British Empire did indeed directly affect many more people than the USA has done.
The British Empire also did reach to the ends of the earth.
In Biblical Commentary it often happens that more than one possible answer exists and that this may have been the intention of Scripture in the first place.
18 And of Zebulun he said:
Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out;
and Issachar, in your tents.
We identified Zebulon with Holland.
Issachar = groups in Switzerland and Finland:
19 They call peoples to the mountain;
there they offer the right sacrifices;
for they suck the affluence of the seas
and the hidden treasures of the sand.
This verse refers to both Issachar and Zebulon.
THE PEOPLE: In Hebrew "amim" meaning peoples in the plural, i.e.Â THEY SHALL CALL THE PEOPLE(s) UNTO THE MOUNTAIN. Switzerland is mountainous and is known for international conferences, etc., efforts to make peace or humanitarian arrangements. "SACRIFICES OF RIGHTEOUSNESS":
SUCK THE AFFLUENCE OF THE SEAS, fishing and sea- trading are important in the Netherlands.
AND OF TREASURES HID IN THE SAND: diamonds in South Africa. The South African whites are dominated by descendants of the Dutch. South Africa is the world's foremost diamond producer. A diamond was the sacred stone of Zebulon.
20 And of Gad he said:
Blessed be the enlargement of Gad!
Gad lives like a lion;
he tears at arm and scalp.
We identify Gad with the Goths, Suiones, and others most of whom settled in Sweden.
The lion is a symbol of Sweden.
The passage continues to speak of Gad:
21 He chose the best for himself,
for there a commander's allotment was reserved;
he came at the head of the people,
he executed the justice of the Lord,
and his ordinances for Israel.
Moses was buried in the portion of Gad. The blessing to Gad mentions this and in the Latter Times it may be important.
We identify Gad primarily with Sweden which at present seems to have geared itself to oppose Judah and the State of Israel.
Nevertheless things could change.
Will Sweden yet surprise us for the better?
22 And of Dan he said:
Dan is a lion's whelp
that leaps forth from Bashan.
Dan and the Serpent Way.
Dan in Northern Israel, Greece, and Elsewhere
Dan we identified with some of the Irish, some Celtic groups, and with the Danes of Denmark. The lion is also a symbol of Denmark. The Danes have a tradition that they were descended from Dan of Israel and were brothers to the Angles. BASHAN was also known as "Basilia" and this name was later applied to Scandinavia.
Dan was also prominent amongst the Irish.
23 And of Naphtali he said:
O Naphtali, sated with favour,
full of the blessing of the LORD,
possess the west and the south.
We identified Naphtali with Norway and with groups who settled in South Africa and New Zealand. Naphtali was also present in Ireland and elsewhere.
Naphtali in Ireland?
24 And of Asher he said:
Most blessed of sons be Asher;
may he be the favourite of his brothers,
and may he dip his foot in oil.
An American oil man took the above verse as referring to the northern coast of Israel. He searched for offshore oil in this area. Some years ago he claimed to have made discoveries but nothing seems to have been published.
Since then we have met Ephraimites who have gone on conducted tours in the north of Israel of the oil discovery project under consideration.
Asher we identified with some of the Irish, part of the Scottish and northern English. Asher was also present in Scandinavia.
Asher is recalled in the "As" (plural "Aseir") ancestral heroes of Scandinavian mythology. "DIP HIS FOOT IN OIL" perhaps refers to North Sea oil reserves shared between Scotland and Norway.
25 Your bars are iron and bronze;
and as your days, so is your strength.
THY SHOES SHALL BE IRON AND BRASS also translatable as "iron and brass will be your safe-guards" or closing statements i.e. what you bargain and trade with.. This prophecy is applicable to the Lowland Scottish.
The Lowland Scottish in Britain and the Scots Irish in the USA were significant contributors towards the shipbuilding, railway, and other industrial enterprises based on the working of iron and brass.
The word translated as "bass" in Hebrew is nechoshet which literally means "copper" but could also be applied to copper and zince alloys such as bronze.
26 There is none like God, O Jeshurun,
who rides through the heavens to your help,
majestic through the skies.
27 He subdues the ancient gods,
shatters the forces of old;
he drove out the enemy before you,
and said, Destroy!
DESTROY! God prefers that we ourselves destroy the evildoers and enemies of Israel. This requires courage and at times self-sacrifice. These qualities are easy to admire from a distance. Every one of us is potentially a hero or a coward and sometimes the boundary between these two concepts becomes blurred. If you do the best you can, learn and pray, then God will guide you when you need His guidance even if at the time you are not consciously aware of Him.
28 And Israel shall dwell alone,
the fountain [Hebrew: ayin] of Jacob
in a land of grain and wine,
where the heavens drop down dew.
grain and wine: agricultural bounty. The nations we have identified as containing significant numbers of Israelites all dwell in areas that have beneficial climates, invigorating environments, and fertile soils.
WAS THE US GREAT SEAL, EYE OF PROVIDENCE, PREDICTED BY JACOB AS A SYMBOL OF ISRAEL?
##THE FOUNTAIN OF JACOB##: In Hebrew "Ayin Yaacob" which can also mean "the Eye of Jacob" perhaps referring to the All-Seeing Eye of Providence depicted on the US Great Seal?
29 Happy are you, O Israel! Who is like you,
a people saved by the Lord,
the shield of your help,
and the sword of your triumph!
Your enemies shall come fawning to you,
and you shall tread on their high places.
# A PEOPLE SAVED BY THE LORD #: The Almighty is close to us, looks after us and helps us. In return HE expects more from us!
## and the sword of your triumph ## is also translatable as saying, AND FOR WHOM THE SWORD IS YOUR PRIDE. One of the signs of Israelite descent in our opinion is proven potential of military prowess against overwhelming odds. This quality is not always evident but it is there. Sometimes it is temporarily dormant. Other traits include those of fraternity towards other Israelites, mercy, and justice.
These verses continue from the Blessing to the Tribe ofÂ Asher. They apply to ALL ISRAEL but appear to have an especial application to Asher.
Asher and the Sword
come fawning to you, also translated as SHALL BE FOUND LIARS UNTO THEE. Hebrew "Yicachashu" from the root "CaCHaSh". This is a frequent expression in the Bible but a little difficult to explain. Literally it means something like "deny": Your enemies will be so overwhelmed by you that they will deny their enmity and force themselves to submit unto you.
and you shall tread on their high places: You will force them to behave themselves. They will conduct themselves according to your will rather than their own. Left to themselves they hate you and will work against you even if it means harming themselves in the process. You will force them to adopt codes of conduct that you consider they need to abide by.
The British in India stopped human sacrifices and many forms of abuse. They liberated slaves throughout their Empire. They forced the heathen to recognize Western Values. The French and Dutch did the same in their Empires. The USA also has done much in this direction through its Coca-Cola Imperialism which is actually on the whole positive and effective.
The expression Judeo-Christian values has been much disparaged lately. The fact remains that it reflects Biblical Values. Only Anglo-Saxons use this expression and only for them does it really have meaning.
In effect "Judeo-Christian" means "Israelite values"!
We believe in Israelite Values!
Like it or not, we are Israelites.
Whether we ourselves like it or not, That is what we are!
1 Then Moses went up from the plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, which is opposite Jericho, and the Lord showed him the whole land: Gilead as far as Dan,
2 all Naphtali, the land of Ephraim and Manasseh, all the land of Judah as far as the Western Sea,
3 the Negeb, and the Plain, that is, the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, as far as Zoar.
Moses was shown the whole land, not just part of it. It was ALL was promised to the Children of Israel and they have a Divine Imperative to conquer it.
4 The LORDE said to him, This is the land of which I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, I will give it to your descendants; I have let you see it with your eyes, but you shall not cross over there.
5 Then Moses, the servant of the LORD, died there in the land of Moab, at the LORDs command.
6 He was buried in a valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth-peor, but no one knows his burial place to this day.
7 Moses was one hundred and twenty years old when he died; his sight was unimpaired and his vigour had not abated.
He was as vigorous as an athletic young man all the days of his life. This is a rare phenomenon but it does occur.
8 The Israelites wept for Moses in the plains of Moab for thirty days; then the period of mourning for Moses was ended.
9 Joshua son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom, because Moses had laid his hands on him; and the Israelites obeyed him, doing as the LORD had commanded Moses.
10 Never since has there arisen a prophet in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face.
There was never a greater prophet than Moses. Only Moses received a direct revelation "face to face". All other prophets received indirect inspiration.
11 He was unequalled for all the signs and wonders that the LORD sent him to perform in the land of Egypt, against Pharaoh and all his servants and his entire land,
12 and for all the mighty deeds and all the terrifying displays of power that Moses performed in the sight of all Israel.
All of Israel saw the signs and wonders that Moses performed and all of Israel obligated itself to follow Moses for all time.